Important update on Ryton Organic Gardens

Ryton Gardens latest – 23 Feb 2018

Dear Local Group Member

In September last year we sent a letter, with The Organic Way magazine, to all members informing them of the Board of Trustees decision to explore options for our headquarters site at Ryton. We are looking to secure the long-term future of the charity and release the financial pressures from owning and managing the land and buildings.

As part of the exercise to understand what future options the organisation has, the site has been marketed by property advisors, with expressions of interest received from a number of different parties and for a variety of purposes.

At the moment these expressions of interest contain only headline information with minimal detail. The next step will be to meet with interested parties and begin discussions to understand the detail behind each one. This will be a complex and potentially lengthy process but as and when we have any further updates we will continue to publish them on our website.

The Board of Trustees will evaluate the options available on the merit of their ability to protect the future of the charity. They will be considering all elements of our charitable work to ensure we are in a position of strength to continue and expand the work which delivers the most charitable benefit, both to our members and our project beneficiaries.

As you will be aware, Garden Organic is a national charity with a mission to encourage people to grow organically. We have over 20,000 members across the UK who access information and advice from our website, magazines and newsletters, and through our outreach work. At our base at Ryton we have an organic demonstration garden open to the public, plus a number of buildings which we manage.

In recent years, it has become clear to the Trustees that the running costs of the full site at Ryton are limiting our ability to operate to our full potential. The site is expensive to run and means that we are unable to fund as many projects as we would like in other parts of the country where we believe we could make a real difference. In addition visitor numbers to the site have dropped as there are now many different inspirational sites across the country where organic gardening can be seen in practice.

We currently undertake some outreach work through our amazing volunteer Master Composters, Master Gardeners, Growing Buddies and Food Buddies to support individuals, community gardens, schools and horticultural therapy projects at grassroots level across the UK. Our Heritage Seed Library is also going from strength to strength, with the support of our volunteer Seed Guardians, and we are building partnerships with venues to showcase varieties with local and historical relevance. We would like to do much more of this outreach work, which spreads the organic message far and wide.

Garden Organic has had to evolve many different times since it began. It is this willingness to move forward that has allowed the organisation to continue for 60 years, and will put it in the best position to continue for 60 more.

I would be happy to attend one of your group’s forthcoming meetings, to explain the charity’s position in more detail and answer any questions you may have. If you would like to take up this offer please contact Trish Henderson at phenderson@gardenorganic.org.uk with potential dates. Please could you also share this message amongst your group’s members?

 

We will continue to provide updates via our website and The Organic Way, and any comments or questions on this can be submitted via email to questions@gardenorganic.org.uk.

Yours sincerely,

James Campbell
Garden Organic CEO

Potato Day a roaring success

Potato Day 2018 was a roaring success, with crowds once again queuing patiently well before the doors opening, and the first variety to sell out going in just 11 minutes.

Talks from Riverford Organics and Plate2Plate compost kept people entertained, the Wholegrain Café kept people topped up with food and drink, and Veg on the Edge swapped seeds all day long. Stalls from West Riding Organics, Palestinian Solidarity Oil and the Vegan Society provided plenty of things to look at and buy. Once again, there were a range of fruit trees and bushes for sale.

There was a good deal of interest from local media, with radio spots on BBC Radio Leeds and BCB community radio, together with a great article in the T&A.

Thanks to all the volunteers who either helped in the kitchen or sold spuds, by the end of the day we were nearly sold out. There are a few varieties left and if you’re still after some you can get hold of them on the 24th of February, 1-3pm at the club house on Northcliffe allotments. To get to the club house park at the Cliffe Gardens entrance to Northcliffe Woods (off Bradford Road), walk up the steep tarmac road and onto the muddy track, keep going for a couple of hundred yards and the club house is on the right, at the top of the bottom set of allotments, it has a ramp and lots of pots etc outside. If you get to a car park and NEET then you have gone too far so come back down the track.

Ryton Gardens update – February 2018

In September last year we sent a letter, with the Organic Way magazine, to all members informing them of the Board of Trustees decision to explore options for our headquarters at Ryton. We are looking to secure the long-term future of the charity and release the financial pressures from owning and managing the land and buildings. We also sent a letter to the relatives of people who have memorials on the site and contacted groups who use the gardens regularly.

As part of the exercise to understand what future options the organisation has, the site is being marketed by property advisors, Bruton Knowles, with expressions of interest requested this week. Over the weeks following the Trustees will be considering any expressions of interest and will start to discuss proposals with interested parties. Discussions could take the form of a full sale, a partial sale, a partnership or otherwise – it is simply too early to tell.

The Board of Trustees will evaluate the options available on the merit of their ability to protect the future of the charity. They will be considering all elements of our charitable work to ensure we are in a position of strength to continue and expand the work which delivers the most charitable benefit, both to our members and our project beneficiaries.

As members will be aware, Garden Organic is a national charity with a mission to encourage people to grow organically. We have over 20,000 members across the UK who access information and advice from our website, magazines and newsletters, and through our outreach work. At our base at Ryton we have an organic demonstration garden open to the public, plus a number of buildings which we manage.

In recent years, it has become clear to the Trustees of the charity that the running costs of the full site at Ryton are limiting our ability to operate to our full potential. The site is expensive to run and means that we are unable to fund as many projects as we would like in other parts of the country where we believe we could make a real difference. In addition visitor numbers to the site have dropped as there are many different sites across the country where organic gardening can be seen in practice and many television programmes, magazines, online resources, etc. promoting organic gardening. 

We currently undertake some outreach work using our amazing volunteer Master Composters, Master Gardeners, Growing Buddies and Food Buddies to support individuals, community gardens, schools and horticultural therapy projects at grassroots level across the UK. Our Heritage Seed Library is also going from strength to strength, with the support of our volunteer Seed Guardians, and we are building partnerships with venues to grow and display varieties with local and historical relevance. We would like to do much more of this outreach work, which spreads the organic message far and wide.

Garden Organic has had to evolve many different times since it began. It is this willingness to move forward that has allowed the organisation to continue for 60 years, and will put it in the best position to continue for 60 more.

We will continue to provide updates via our website and The Organic Way, however if you have any comments or questions on this in the meantime please email questions@gardenorganic.org.uk.

Read the January 2018 update.

Read the September 2017 update.

France to make half of all food in public sector organic or local by 2022

FarmingUK 5 February 2018 11:45:32

Hunawihr, a small village surrounded by vineyards in north east France

Hunawihr, a small village surrounded by vineyards in north east France

France has announced that at least half of all food bought by the public sector must be organic or locally produced.

 

Reported in Politico, the French government will force an uptake of local and organic food by 2022.

 

The French Agricultural Minister Stéphane Travert announced the new rules as part of measures to boost the French farming sector, and to improve diets.

 

Farming charity the Soil Association has said Defra Secretary Michael Gove must “sit up” and “take note” on this new French policy.

 

Policy and Campaigns Manager at the Soil Association’s Food for Life, Rob Percival said the initiative highlights the “power of public procurement” to support better farming practices and improve diets.

 
He said: “More ambitious action from Government could further stimulate demand for British, local, and higher quality produce.

 

“Michael Gove already has the tools he needs at his fingertips. He must move now to implement mandate Defra’s Balanced Scorecard approach across the whole public sector including education and health, while requiring public procurement decisions to place a weighting of at least 60% on quality relative to cost.”

 

Mr Percival said Mr Gove should also investigate the potential of ‘dynamic’ procurement approaches to support SME producers to gain access to markets, in line with the commitments made in the Industrial Strategy.

 

He said as France is showing, public procurement can be a “powerful tool” for supporting local and organic farmers, and can make an “important contribution” towards improved public health.

 

“Gove must seize the opportunity presented by Brexit to implement a procurement policy at least as ambitious as his French counterpart,” Mr Percival added.

Ryton Gardens update January 2018

The following statement is taken from the Garden Organic website:

“In September 2017, Garden Organic wrote to all members to announce that the running costs of our base at Ryton were limiting our ability to reach our full potential, and we would be exploring a number of options for the site that are in the best interest of the long-term future of the charity.

A copy of the letter, which was sent to members with the Autumn/Winter issue of The Organic Way, can be downloaded below. 

We are still exploring all possible options that will release the financial pressure that comes with owning and managing the land and buildings, and as part of this process the site is being marketed by property advisors.

In the future we want to make sure we can take our message to more people, communities and schools than ever before, and invest more resources in projects that will have the biggest impact. 

We will continue to keep members informed about our plans for Ryton and anyone with any questions should email questions@gardenorganic.org.uk.  

Download the original letter here
 

Posted: Thursday, 25 January 2018″

The Clean Growth Strategy

Sunset in field

The Government yesterday published its long-awaited Clean Growth Strategy, setting out its plans and priorities for moving the UK to a low-carbon economy over the coming years. Unfortunately, the UK Government is still failing to reach its emissions reductions targets, in breach of the Climate Change Act. As ClientEarth have pointed out, “We need a firm commitment to say how the UK will decarbonise. Good intentions are no longer good enough”.   However, the Strategy does make a number of promising statements and commitments on the future of farming and land use, many of which reflect core priorities for the Soil Association.

Chief among these is the Government’s stated intention to design a new farming system “with a strong focus on delivering better environmental outcomes, including tackling climate change”. In the UK, farming accounts for 10% of our total greenhouse gas emissions, making it the third highest emitting sector after transport and energy.[1] Globally, the food system accounts for around a third of all greenhouse gas emissions.[2] It is abundantly clear that we stand no hope of successfully tackling climate change without a revolutionary change to the way we farm.

We at the Soil Association also welcome the Government’s recognition of the vital role of trees in storing carbon and enhancing and protecting the natural environment. England has fallen desperately behind its target to plant 11 million trees by 2020, and this Clean Growth Strategy commits to accelerating the rate of tree planting over the coming years. We particularly welcome the Government’s commitment to introduce incentives to encourage farmers to plant trees on farms, a practice known as agroforestry. Throughout 2017, the Soil Association and others have been working hard to raise the profile of agroforestry, and we are pleased to see that the Government is taking note.

The Strategy rightly recognised the valuable role of healthy soils and the need to tackle emissions from nitrogen fertiliser. It sets out ambitions to protect and restore vulnerable, carbon-rich peat soils, to develop low carbon fertilisers, and to “overcome the decline in soil quality in the UK”.

Radical changes in the approach to farming, food and the way we manage land are needed. As part of this Strategy, the Government should put farmers themselves at the heart of their approach to innovation. The Innovative Farmers programme is leading the way in field-based, farmer-led research, and the Soil Association is calling on the Government to invest in a dedicated farmer-led innovation fund. We are also urging the Government to accept the Committee on Climate Change advice for new farm policies to 2030 to move beyond the current voluntary approach to cutting greenhouse gas emissions.[3]

We now want to see the Government recognise and reward the major contribution that organic farming can make to achieve the goals on climate change set out in the Strategy. Organic farmers and growers up and down the country are practicing methods of farming which are known to help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. A report published earlier this year by IFOAM EU sets out comprehensively the considerable benefits of organic farming for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

While the Strategy does make some positive noises about the direction that farming, the supply side, needs to move in, it ignores demand – the need to change what people eat, both for the sake of human health, and so that we can farm in ways which will achieve the Government’s new objectives. However, there is much to feel heartened by in the Clean Growth Strategy and we at the Soil Association will now focus our efforts on ensuring that these priorities and policies are implemented – and improved where necessary too. The forthcoming Agriculture Bill will be a big test to determine whether or not the Government remain true to its word on addressing the climate impacts of farming and food. We will also be pushing for a much greater emphasis on supporting and incentivising truly sustainable, low impact farming methods, such as organic farming. The commitments made in this Strategy represent an encouraging step forward, but there is still a great deal of work to be done to ensure that these laudable plans become a reality.

If, like us, you believe that our food and farming must form part of the solution to the climate crisis, please support us. Donate today for a better tomorrow.

[1] https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/604350/2015_Final_Emissions_statistics.pdf

[2] Vermeulen, S. J., Campbell, B. M. & Ingram, J. S. I. (2012) ‘Climate Change and Food Systems’ Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 37, 195–222 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-020411-130608  

[3] https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/2017-Report-to-Parliament-Meeting-Carbon-Budgets-Closing-the-policy-gap.pdf

Future Of British Farming Outside The EU

 Six game-changing ideas for the future of UK farming policy  ()

 

Today, Monday 20 March, we have launched a new report, setting out six proposals for domestic agricultural policy after the UK leaves the EU. These are game-changing ideas that have the potential to transform farming and land use at the scale and pace required to meet multiple challenges – from tackling climate change and nature degradation to supporting rural livelihoods and improving public health. Every farming practice we talk about here already happens on the ground in the UK, but is currently the exception rather than the norm.

Our proposals are:

  • a national agroforestry strategy
  • investing in soil
  • a tipping point for organic
  • a good life for farm animals
  • support for farmer innovation
  • making the most of public procurement

 

There is a growing consensus on some of the key principles that should underlie new policy:

  • We need to maintain high environmental and farm animal welfare standards.
  • Public money should pay for public goods such as clean water, farmland wildlife, carbon storage and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Government should maintain the overall annual farm payment budget of around £3.2 billion.
  • We need a joined up approach that looks at land in the round – farming, forestry, water, wilderness – taking account of public health, food poverty and international development.
  • Policies must work for farmers and growers, and help them move towards sustainable business models.
  • We need a renewed focus on supply chains to improve resilience, farmer incomes, and environmental sustainability.
  • Public participation in debate and decisions on the future of farming is critical.

What we really need now are some game-changing ideas – ideas that have the potential to transform the UK’s farming and land use on the scale and pace required.

Our report proposes six such ideas:

Proposal 1: a national agroforestry strategy

Agroforestry brings trees into fields. They can be in neat rows through crops, dotted through pasture like parkland, or planted closer together to provide cover for plants or animals.

Agroforestry is game-changing because it can increase yields and farm profitability, boost resilience through diversity, and deliver big environmental benefits at the same time. At scale, it would dramatically help mitigate soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, and biodiversity loss while increasing carbon sequestration. 

To deliver these benefits, the government should work with the agricultural, forestry and land use sectors to develop a national agroforestry strategy. This should include: 

  • A target of agroforestry on 50% of all farms by 2030.
  • Clear ownership and accountability within government.
  • Capital grants and maintenance payments.
  • Fiscal measures and procurement policies to grow the domestic market.
  • Incentives for longer term farm tenancies.
  • Investment in research, knowledge exchange and advice. 

Proposal 2: investing in soil

The fundamental importance of soil health to farm productivity, food security, climate change and public health has been neglected by government for far too long. Recent statements from UK ministers on soil health are welcome, but have not been matched by action.

The government’s existing soil health commitments provide a starting point for a new UK policy framework: the global 4 per 1000 soil carbon initiative, aiming to increase soil organic carbon by 0.4% each year; and the aim for all English soils to be managed sustainably and degradation threats tackled successfully by 2030.

Strong policies to restore and protect soil health in the UK’s post-CAP agricultural framework should include:

  • Soil stewardship payments to incentivise farmers to increase the organic matter in the soil – including through existing farm assurance schemes such as organic and LEAF.
  • Regular soil organic matter monitoring and reporting by farmers to form a well-maintained national database, alongside investment in soil health research, data collection and monitoring.
  • Encouraging soil health improvement by making it a requirement of tenancies that soil health is not degraded during their term.
  • A nitrogen budget for each nation of the UK – following Scotland’s lead.
  • Modelling and piloting of new mechanisms to lower nitrogen, such as fiscal measures.

 

Proposal 3: a tipping point for organic

The public benefits delivered by organic farming have been well documented by independent research over decades. They include more wildlife and biodiversity, healthier soils and carbon storage, flood protection, clean water, lower pesticide and antibiotic use, more jobs and healthier food.  

While only 3% of farmland in the UK is organic, British consumers are demanding more organic produce, with the UK organic food and drink market seeing four years of successive growth. With organic farmland more or less stable, much of this growth is being met by imports, particularly of raw materials for animal feed.

In some other countries, organic farming accounts for up to a fifth of production, and sets new norms for policy, business and the public. Reaching such a tipping point would be transformative. We propose an organic strategy for England, developed by government in partnership with the organic sector, which includes:

  • An expansion of organic promotion and marketing – including opportunities for export.
  • Maintaining, improving and expanding the organic conversion and maintenance payments, as currently operating under Countryside Stewardship for England.
  • A particular focus on increasing production of home-grown organic fruit and veg and animal feed, to meet demand and reduce the high reliance on imports.
  • Better procurement policies (see also Proposal 6).
  • Assessing the expansion of organic and other certification systems as a gateway to automatic eligibility for farmers to receive payments.
  • Research, innovation, knowledge sharing through ‘field labs’ and farming advisory services.
  • Encouraging agricultural colleges to offer more courses in organic and agroecological farming practices alongside new organic apprenticeships.
  • Maintaining the legal base for organic standards, ensuring alignment with the EU organic regulation.

 

Proposal 4: a good life for farm animals

Insisting on a good life for all farm animals as a core part of post-Brexit agricultural policy would be game-changing. It would mean switching to better farming systems, not just making tweaks, also brings benefits to public health through dietary changes.  

The Farm Animal Welfare Council defines three levels of welfare: a life not worth living, a life worth living, and a good life. A good life involves more than simply being free from pain or disease. It means ensuring animals have the choice to feel the sun on their backs and to follow their urges to care, graze, root and play.

The scale of indoor, intensive farms is increasing, pushing out smaller family farms to make way for industrial systems that affect local communities and the environment as well as the animals themselves.

We propose that the UK sets the ambition that all farm animals should have a ‘good life’ within ten years. Hand-in-hand with stronger regulation, this will require public investment to help farmers adjust their infrastructure and businesses. This will require:

  • Defining a good life by urgently supporting the development of a rigorous framework that can score farms, supply chains and assurance schemes against the tiers set out by the Farm Animal Welfare Council.
  • Mandatory method of production labelling to empower consumers, level the playing field and allow more farmers to shift from volume to quality production.
  • Banning the routine, preventative use of antibiotics in livestock farming and strict targets to reduce farm antibiotic use 50% by 2020, and 80% by 2050.
  • Incentives and funding to make the transition to extensive, high welfare farming systems, ensuring such systems are the most attractive option for farmers and investors.

 

Proposal 5:  back farmer innovation

The success of UK agriculture post-Brexit will depend on innovation by farmers. Policies should recognise and support this.

The starting point is that thousands of UK farmers already investigate, experiment, design and develop. Helping them share the risk and increase the rigour of this would benefit all of agriculture, at relatively low cost.

The UK spends around £450 million a year on agricultural research and innovation. Only a fraction of this, perhaps as little as 1%, goes to practical projects led by farmers. We propose:

  • A dedicated farmer innovation fund with a budget of at least 10% of the UK’s public agricultural research and development budget.
  • Innovation support services to help farmers apply and make the most of new funds, building on experience from other countries of doing this through the European Innovation Partnership (EIP-Agri), and of home-grown initiatives such as Innovative Farmers.
  • Rewarding practical research by incentivising individual researchers and institutions to pay more attention to the impact of their research, for example, through awards schemes for researchers working on farmer-led projects; training; and involvement of farmers and practitioners in reviewing research grant applications.

 

Proposal 6: making the most of public procurement

Making the most of public procurement could have a transformative impact. The UK public sector serves some 3.5 million meals each weekday across settings as varied as schools, nurseries, care homes, hospitals and prisons. In total, the public sector spends £2.4 billion each year procuring food and catering services across the UK.

While the cost of sourcing higher quality ingredients is perceived as a barrier, this can be counterbalanced by re-formulating menus. 71% of public sector institutions meeting Food for Life Served Here criteria report the implementation was cost neutral and 29% report overall cost savings. Research by the New Economics Foundation demonstrated £3 in social return for every £1 invested in Food for Life, with most of the benefit experienced by local businesses and local employers.

The UK could improve the health and food habits of the next generation by further upping ambitions for school food. It could also help drive demand for food that meets the highest standards, helping to achieve economies of scale in processing and lowering consumer prices. Government should help make this happen by:

  • Implementing the Balanced Scorecard approach across the whole public sector – not just central government.
  • Requiring public procurement decisions to place a weighting of at least 60% on quality, with price not to exceed a 40% weighting.
  • Comparing the cost-effectiveness of delivering public benefits through direct agri-environment payments to farmers compared with growing the demand for assured products such as organic through public procurement – with a view to topping up public catering budgets where cost is a genuine barrier.
  • Using schemes such as Food for Life Served Here for independent verification, to increase the uptake of assurance schemes and grow the market for more sustainable farming and food.

 

Let us know what you think about these proposals. 

Download the report summary here or the full report here.

Switching to organic farming could cut greenhouse gas emissions, study shows

Study also finds that converting conventionally farmed land would not overly harm crop yields or require huge amounts of additional land to feed rising populations

 
Employees work on a salad field on an organic farm in Brodowin, Germany
Employees work on a salad field on an organic farm in Brodowin, Germany. Photograph: Axel Schmidt/Getty Images

Converting land from conventional agriculture to organic production could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the run-off of excess nitrogen from fertilisers, and cut pesticide use. It would also, according to a new report, be feasible to convert large amounts of currently conventionally farmed land without catastrophic harm to crop yields and without needing huge amounts of new land.

The study, published in the journal Nature Communications, found that by combining organic production with an increasingly vegetarian diet, ways of cutting food waste, and a return to traditional methods of fixing nitrogen in the soil instead of using fertiliser, the world’s projected 2050 population of more than 9 billion could be fed without vastly increasing the current amount of land under agricultural production.

This is important, as converting other land such as forests, cerrado or peatlands to agricultural use would increase greenhouse gas emissions from the land. The authors found that an increase in organic farming would require big changes in farming systems, such as growing legumes to replenish nitrogen in the soil.

However, other scientists were cautious over endorsing the report’s findings, pointing out that the size of the world’s agricultural systems and their variability, as well as assumptions about future nutritional needs, made generalisations about converting to organic farming difficult to make.

Sir Colin Berry, emeritus professor of pathology at Queen Mary, University of London, said: “As for all models, assumptions have to be made and what weight you attach to which item can greatly change outcomes. The assumption that grassland areas will remain constant is a large one. The wastage issue is important but solutions, not addressed here, to post-harvest- pre-market losses will be difficult without fungicides for grains. Some populations could do with more protein to grow and develop normally, despite the models here requiring less animal protein.”

 

Les Firbank, professor of sustainable agriculture at Leeds University, said: “One of the question marks about organic farming is that it can’t feed the world. [This paper] concludes organic farming does require more land than conventional methods, but if we manage the demand for food by reducing waste and reducing the amount of crops grown as animal feed, organic farming can feed the world.”

He warned: “[These] models can only be viewed as a guide: there are many assumptions that may not turn out to be true and all these scenario exercises are restricted by limited knowledge [and] are fairly simplistic compared to real life, but realistic enough to help formulate policy. The core message is valuable and timely: we need to seriously consider how we manage the global demand for food.”

Even without converting to organic production, however, the US, India, China and Russia – four of the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitters – could turn into some of the biggest absorbers of carbon, through better management of their agricultural land.

A separate new study shows that these countries have the greatest potential for the sequestration of carbon dioxide through changing the way soils are protected, through better farming methods that can also help to preserve declining soil fertility.

Scientists said the potential of using soil as a carbon sink was equivalent to taking between 215m and 400m cars off the road, even if only small changes are made, of a kind which should be achievable on all farms. The study, published on Tuesday in the Nature journal Scientific Reports, and conducted by experts from the Chinese Academy of Science, the Nature Conservancy NGO, and the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, found that farming crops differently could make a big contribution to achieving the goals of the Paris agreement on climate change.

Today’s intensive agricultural methods, involving frequent tilling of soils and the excessive use of chemical fertilisers, could be replaced with the revival of older methods such as the increased use of manure, cover cropping, mulching and growing trees next to cropland. However, the role of land management in preventing dangerous levels of climate change has often been overlooked at the talks, where discussions over the burning of fossil fuels have dominated. This is partly because of the urgency of switching away from fossil fuels, and partly because land management is a diffuse and diverse problem spread across the globe from small farmers to agri-industrialists, whereas fossil fuel sources tend to be larger and more monolithic, such as coal-fired power plants.

The results will be presented to delegates at the UN COP23 climate talks in Bonn on Wednesday. Nations at the talks are discussing ways to increase the commitments on emissions reductions made alongside the Paris agreement, and which scientists say are currently inadequate to hold the world to no more than 2C of warming, the binding target under the landmark 2015 accord.