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Jack first on Compost

What more can be written about compost, a subject covered hundreds of times by different authors. Time and time again we read of the usual composting materials such as kitchen and garden refuse, of leaves and manures of garden pets such as poultry and rabbits. Horse manure might be available to a lucky few. One thing is for sure, for many there is never enough of these composting materials to meet all the needs around the garden. But have you ever passed by a landfill site on a frosty day and wondered about the clouds of steam rising. That steam can only be generated by all items created via photosynthesis and includes many items discarded by all that could be used to produce compost.

While living in Yorkshire I had no problem obtaining large quantities of horse manure for making Hot Beds or adding to compost heaps. But this supply has dried up as I now live in Wales with few stables nearby. So I have had to seek out alternatives sourced locally, some of which maybe local to you. Many leaves are gathered by the lane that runs by our house. Sacks of spent hops from the local brewery are collected free of charge. Local sheep farmers have delivered bales of daggings, the soiled part of sheeps wool separated at shearing time). A bunch of onions passed on in gratitude goes a long way. Seaweed is plentiful as we are close to the coast but check with your council first in case permission is needed to collect it.
To a lesser extent paper and cardboard can be used but remove tape, do not include glossy paper and check that cardboard is not plastic lined. All goods made from 100% natural fibres such as cotton clothes, sheets and other bedding can be included. Paper, cardboard and those items made from natural fibres should be weathered before including in a Hot Bed or compost heap. All the above have been used in Hot Beds and within ten months have successfully decomposed.
One can also assume that these materials will likewise decompose in a compost heap, providing air and moisture is present. The exceptions are underwear which can contain much elastic, and although 100% marked cotton trousers and jeans will mostly decompose, the zip, pockets, studs and washing instructions remain, all connected by nylon thread.
Typically a pair of my trousers and jeans weigh two and a half pounds. The remnants after being in hot bed weigh four ounces. So only 10% goes to landfill the rest totally decomposes.

Jack First

Jack First On Slugs and Snails

Slugs and snails header
Jack First writes this month on ‘some old ways of dealing with slugs and snail’s

The gardeners of the past had a few tricks of their own and in order to understand the methods used we must first take a closer look at our foe. The slug like the snail requires a constant supply of moisture to enable motion. After foraging and sensing a shortage of moisture a snail will quickly shut up shop. That is why they can often be seen half way up a tree or wall. Here they remain until evening dew or rain enables motion. The slug on the other hand has no such luck. At daybreak, they must find a place of safety but often they can be found on a path or pavement. One can see their slime trails heading in all directions in a frantic race for a damp hiding place to rehydrate. They can often be seen totally desiccated having used up all their water reserves. So to start with we can be 100% certain that slugs and snails need moisture in order to carry out their nightly foraging. So why do water in the evening when the ground remains wet all night. We are inadvertently inviting these pests to a smooth wet path to dinner. Best not to water seedlings or young plants in the evening.

The old books referred to frequent stirrings between the crop rows. There are different tools to carry out this job depending on soil type or structure and once mastered is a speedy task with many benefits. The aim is to loosen the soil with a hoe or tine but only very shallow, no more than an inch deep. Slugs and snails as well as other pests lay their eggs close to the crop, the stirrings bring the eggs and lavae to the surface which perish or are consumed by birds. The gardeners of old were convinced that regular stirrings stimulated growth as more air was introduced to the soil. This is certainly the case when after heavy rain some soils become capped and stirrings permit air again. Most importantly from the slug and snails point of view getting to the crop is much harder. This top layer of soil being light and airy soon dries out. It is no longer smooth but for the slug more like terminal moraine, hard and difficult to traverse.

There is the old trick of light dusting of lime using a hessian sack. Many gardeners used to keep hens ducks or geese which if carefully managed soon clean up a patch. I witnessed this myself in Keighley where our Italian neighbours, Autoro and Lelia kept hens. When foraging for food hens scrape the ground then quickly step backwards eyes peeled to the ground consuming all that moves. Autoro would guide his flock for about ten minutes between the crops. Hens are opportunistic and will peck at the greens so they must be kept on the move. Needless to say Autoro and Lelias plot was fairly free of slugs. If you can get hold of daggings or wool you will find these a good deterrent. The last thing a slug or snail needs is to be dragging a wooly coat around. Seriously though, works well and also eventually rots down well.

Jack First

Jack First on wildlife and growing in North Wales

It’s been five years since leaving West Yorkshire and I thought it time that I brought you up to date with some insight to our new lives in North Wales. We have been very lucky having found our house which is surrounded by fields and all sorts of wildlife. Within two thousand metres of our house is no less than forty-one remnants of ancient woodland and other protected areas. The sea and Snowdonia are nearby along with many footpaths. Besides the usual birds which visit our garden, buzzards fly nearby. During nesting time, a few crows bravely make a noisy beeline to see off any buzzards which venture to close. It is fascinating to see the aerial combat which ensues. While out walking one day a stoat carrying a large rabbit crossed our path. On another occasion a stoat could be seen chasing a mouse in and out of a stone wall. Ravens often feed in the fields nearby, with the aid of binoculars one can see their large and powerful beaks. By night one hears the Barn Owl and sees bats fly silently by. We are blessed with a site nearby where starlings gather in huge numbers and perform their amazing murmuration. The starlings sometimes congregate on our oak tree before heading down to the roost. The other day a grey squirrel was half way up our holly tree when a magpie which was nesting there, flew down and chased it out of the garden and down the lane, all be it cautiously and at a safe distance. We have the usual frogs, toads and newts and lately ducks are regular visitors.

All this wildlife is good news, but there is a bit of a downside if you happen to grow fruit and vegetables. For instance, why is the bird bath sometimes almost dry, what has been making all these holes and scuff marks in the lawn and other areas, and what has burrowed into the hot bed and compost bin? My newly planted potatoes have disappeared down a burrow. I had been meaning to purchase a wild life trail camera, so these recent events have prompted me to get on and do so. The images have revealed some of these mysteries. An ewe with a lamb drinking out of the bird bath, and images of mice or shrews as well as a rat and a small rabbit. The night time images reveal a few cats on their nightly patrols and the ducks asleep on the pond. Unfortunately, our garden is very rocky, a spade or fork will not penetrate the soil, so raised beds are the answer. High input, but it is the only way. And of course, all that lovely loose soil in the beds is ideal for burrowing animals. A bit of fleece covering the crop and some fencing here and there has mostly sorted this problem. Although there might be a few naughty rabbits occasionally entering our garden, I still expect to be producing fair harvests. The organic growers’ mentality regarding wildlife is a good one. It’s easier to cope with bunny and others.

Jack First

Growing Projects

Group of people in a community garden looks at plants in a raised bed. Some of the plants have a blue label saying "butterfly diner"

Bradford City Farm, Walker Drive, BD8 9EZ animals, veg growing and educational sessions.
Grow Wakefield www.grow-wakefield.co.uk promoting growing in the Wakefield area

Holmfirth Transition Town Edible https://hott.org.uk has several project including a community food growing project

Incredible Edible Aireborough – has a Facebook page; undertakes planting projects around Guisely

Incredible Edible Bingley – has a Facebook page

Incredible Edible Brighouse www.incredibleediblebrighouse.co.uk growing projects and a stall at events

Incredible Edible Burley in Wharfedale – has a Facebook page

Incredible Edible Clayton West – has a Facebook page

Incredible Edible Crossgates https://crossgates.edibleleeds.org.uk/

Incredible Edible Kirkstall – has a Facebook page

Incredible Edible Morley – has a Facebook page

Saltaire Veg on the edge creating opportunities for community food growing. https://vegontheedge.org/

Todmorden. Incredible Edible www.incredible-edible-todmorden.co.uk growing vegetable to share, run cooking and other demonstrations, organise events and festivals.

Terry's Tomato Tips

Heritage tomatoes on a tray with overlaid text reading "Terry's Tips: Everything about tomato growing"

Children's Section

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From Val's Plot

Drawing of alloment plants with clouds and blue background. Overlain text saying"From Val's Plot: Seasonal reporting from and everyday plot"

Jack First's Advice

person watering alloment plants with traditional mental watering can. Overlaid text reads "Organic growing advoce from Jack First"